Synthroid is usually used as a replacement for a hormone normally produced by your thyroid gland. The hormone is necessary to regulate the body’s energy and metabolism.
Surgery (chier – hand, ergon – action) in Greek means needlework, craft. Currently, however, surgeons are unlikely to enjoy such an understanding of their profession. If the diagnosis is inaccurate, incorrect indications and contraindications to surgery, even a perfectly executed surgery will not bring relief to the patient and, conversely, can lead to undesirable effects, and sometimes to death of the patient. In addition to that, the success of treatment is determined by the preoperative preparation of a full and adequate treatment in the postoperative period, which requires considerable knowledge, clinical pharmacology and other sciences, that require the ability to recognize complications and to deal with them.
Acute appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix cecum. This is the most common surgical pathology that occurs among 4-5 persons per 1,000 population. Most often the disease occurs at the age of 20 to 40 years; besides, women suffer 2 times more often than men.
Gastro-intestinal bleeding is a common complication of gastric and duodenal ulcer, chronic disease with relapsing cyclical, prone to progression, which has no clearly defined etiology, in comparison to symptomatic ulcers.
Acute intestinal obstruction is one of the most dangerous pathological conditions encountered in abdominal surgery. For intestinal obstruction (more precisely – intestinal obstruction) is characterized by a violation of the passage of intestinal contents in the direction from the stomach to the anus.
Acute cholecystitis is an inflammation of the gallbladder which has acute bacterial origin. Acute cholecystitis is the most common disease of the abdominal cavity and is second to acute appendicitis. The high incidence is associated with increased frequency of gallstone disease (GSD) and an increase of life expectancy.
Acute pancreatitis is destructive and inflammatory lesion of the pancreas that is based on processes of autoferment necrobiosis and necrosis with possible endogenous infection and involvement in the pathological process of retroperitoneal tissue, abdominal organs, and systems extraperitoneal localization.
Peritonitis is an inflammation of the peritoneum caused by bacterial or chemical agent. The most common cause of peritonitis is a complication of local infectious-inflammatory processes that are inflammatory and destructive disease of the abdominal cavity.
Relief of pain from the surgery may be provided by anesthesia. The task of physician anesthesiologists is to control vital body functions, identifying the causes of impairment among the patients being operated. Anesthesia is a loss of sensation caused by the temporary suppression of the sensory nerves.
Being achieved by the influence of anesthetic agents on the brain, general anesthesia (anesthesia) or spinal anesthesia, hits the nerve trunks in the place of surgery (local anesthesia).
Pathological processes are underlying surgical disease. Although there are many thousands of surgical diseases, they are based on only a few types of pathological processes:
- Surgical infection is the introduction of germs into the human body which results in developing of inflammation. The range of diseases is very vast, from a simple skin abscesses to such grievous suffering as a diffuse purulent peritonitis, or general purulent infection – sepsis
- Trauma is a wide variety of open and closed injuries: bruises, concussions, sprains, compression, fractures, sprains, wounds, burns, frostbite, ruptures internal organs etc
- Tumor tissue growth is fundamental in the emergence of a variety of neoplasms affecting individual organs and tissues
- Circulatory disorders and related take off gangrene, ulcers, fistulas and so on
- Developmental abnormalities that underlie many diseases
- Parasitic diseases requiring surgical treatment (echinococcosis, ascariasis, etc.)
Surgery – this is a huge area of medicine, the primary method of treatment which is a surgical intervention, or simply – the operation. However, this definition is not quite complete. Many diseases are treated with the surgery and without surgery, but are done by the surgeon.
Currently, surgery includes a variety of specialized disciplines. This branch of surgery, such as:
- Purulent surgery – it is engaged in treatment of purulent diseases of soft and hard tissue (cellulitis, abscesses, osteomyelitis, etc.)
- Abdominal surgery – treats diseases of the gastrointestinal tract
- Urology – treats diseases of the genitourinary system
- Gynecology – treats diseases of the female genital organs
- Proctology – treats diseases of rectum and colon (such as hemorrhoids, anal fissure, polyps, etc.)
- Mammalogiya – treats diseases of the breast
- Angiology and its branch – phlebology – are treating diseases of blood vessels (endateriit, varicose veins, etc.)
- Pediatric Surgery – treats surgical diseases in children
- Oncology – treating tumors, both benign and malignant
- Orthopedics and Traumatology – treating injuries and diseases of the bone system
- Neurosurgery – deals with surgical treatment of diseases of the brain and spinal cord and peripheral nerves
- Cardiac surgery – surgery deals with heart diseases, ischemic heart disease, arrhythmias, etc.
- Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery – surgery deals with diseases of the oral cavity
- Ophthalmic – deals with the surgical correction of
List the branches of surgery, probably, can be long, each of which, in turn, is divided by another more specific branches. This division of a huge branch of medicine – surgery – currently requires rapid development of the whole medicine as a science in general.
Dilates coronary vessels (mostly arterioles) and causes a sizeable increasing of volumetric blood flow velocity. Increases the oxygen content in venous blood of the coronary sinus and myocardial uptake. Enables the development of collateral coronary circulation, improves microcirculation.
Pharmacological action – immunosuppressant. Slows down the synthesis of guanine nucleotides.
Imuran is prescribed together with other pills to prevent kidney transplant rejection. It may also be recommended to cure the symptoms of active rheumatoid arthritis.
Atarax is used for sedative effect and fighting anxiety and angst in patients before and after the general anesthetization. The drug can be also applied in the cases of allergic reactions to certain allergens like poison ivy that include itching, rash, hives and other allergic dermatologic symptoms. You doctor or other health care specialist may prescribe you taking Atarax for other medical purposes.
Prograf is a popular immunosuppressive medicine. It is indicated for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in patients receiving allogeneic liver, kidney, or heart transplants. It prescribed for the treatment of severe atopic dermatitis (eczema), the skin condition vitiligo and severe refractory uveitis after bone marrow transplants.