A white crystalline powder, odourless or with a faint amine-like odour. It contains between 41.9% and 43.6% of choline and between 61.7% and 65.5% of theophylline, each calculated with reference to the dried substance.
Freely soluble in water slightly soluble in alcohol. A white, odourless, amorphous or crystalline solid. Freely soluble in water sparingly soluble in alcohol and in chloroform practically insoluble in ether.
It contains 84.0 to 87.4% of anhydrous theophylline and 13.5 to 15.0% of anhydrous ethylenediamine. A white or slightly yellowish powder, sometimes granular.
Slightly soluble in water sparingly soluble in dehydrated alcohol. It dissolves in solutions of alkali hydroxides, in ammonia, and in mineral acids.
Sparingly soluble in water freely soluble in boiling water slightly soluble in dehydrated alcohol. It dissolves in concentrated solutions of alkali benzoates or salicylates.
Theophylline is a xanthine and relaxes bronchial smooth muscle, relieves bronchospasm, and has a stimulant effect on respiration. It stimulates the myocardium and CNS, decreases peripheral resistance and venous pressure, and causes diuresis. It is still not clear how theophylline exerts these effects.
The toxic effects of theophylline, aminophylline, and other xanthines are additive. Use with other xanthine medications should therefore be avoided if intravenous aminophylline is to be given for acute bronchospasm in patients who have been taking maintenance theophylline therapy, serum-theophylline concentrations should be measured first and the initial dose reduced as appropriate (see Uses and Administration, below).