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Latuda: Usage. Dosage. Warnings

Full prescribing information

Warning: increased mortality in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis

Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Analyses of 17 placebo-controlled trials (modal duration of 10 weeks), largely in patients taking atypical antipsychotic drugs, revealed a risk of death in drug-treated patients of between 1.6 to 1.7 times the risk of death in placebo-treated patients. Over the course of a typical 10-week controlled trial, the rate of death in drug-treated patients was about 4.5%, compared to a rate of about 2.6% in the placebo group. Although the causes of death were varied, most of the deaths appeared to be either cardiovascular (e.g., heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (e.g., pneumonia) in nature.

Observational studies suggest that, similar to atypical antipsychotic drugs, treatment with conventional antipsychotic drugs may increase mortality. The extent to which the findings of increased mortality in observational studies may be attributed to the antipsychotic drug as opposed to some characteristic(s) of the patients is not clear.

Latuda is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis, [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]

1. Indications and usage

Latuda is indicated for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia.

The efficacy of Latuda in schizophrenia was established in four 6-week controlled studies of adult patients with schizophrenia [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].

The effectiveness of Latuda for longer-term use, that is, for more than 6 weeks, has not been established in controlled studies. Therefore, the physician who elects to use Latuda for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient [see Dosage and Administration (2)].

2. Dosage and administration

2.1. Schizophrenia

The recommended starting dose of Latuda is 40 mg once daily. Initial dose titration is not required. Latuda has been shown to be effective in a dose range of 40 mg/day to 120 mg/day [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. In the 6-week controlled trials, there was no suggestion of added benefit with the 120 mg/day dose, but there was a dose-related increase in certain adverse reactions. Therefore, the maximum recommended dose is 80 mg/day.

2.2. Administration Instructions

Latuda should be taken with food (at least 350 calories) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12)].

Latuda 20mg/ 40mg / 80mg/ 120mg

2.3. Dosage in Special Populations

Dosage adjustments are not recommended on the basis of age, gender, and race [see Use in Specific Populations (8)].

Dose adjustment is recommended in moderate and severe renal impairment patients. The dose in these patients should not exceed 40 mg/day [see Use in Specific Populations (8)].

Dose adjustment is recommended in moderate and severe hepatic impairment patients. The dose in these patients should not exceed 40 mg/day [see Use in Specific Populations (8)].

Dosing recommendation for patients taking Latuda concomitantly with potential CYP3A4 inhibitors: When coadministration of Latuda with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor such as diltiazem is considered, the dose should not exceed 40 mg/day. Latuda should not be used in combination with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor (e.g., ketoconazole) [see Contraindications (4); Drug Interactions (7.1)].

Dosing recommendation for patients taking Latuda concomitantly with potential CYP3A4 inducers: Latuda should not be used in combination with a strong CYP3A4 inducer (e.g., rifampin) [see Contraindications (4); Drug Interactions (7.1)].

3. Dosage forms and strengths

Latuda tablets are available in the following shape and color (Table: Latuda Tablet Presentations) with respective one-sided debossing: 40 mg (white to off-white, round, “L40″), or 80 mg (pale green, oval, 180″).

Table: Latuda Tablet Presentations

Tablet Strength Tablet Color/Shape Tablet Markings
40 mg white to off-white round “L40″
80 mg pale green oval “L80″

4. Contraindications

Latuda is contraindicated in any patient with a known hypersensitivity to lurasidone HCI or any components in the formulation. Angioedema has been observed with lurasidone [see Adverse Reactions (6.6)].

Latuda is contraindicated with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole) and strong CYP3A4 inducers (e.g., rifampin) [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].

5. Warnings and precautions

5.1. Increased Mortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis

Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Latuda is not approved for the treatment of dementia-related psychosis [see Boxed Warning].

5.2. Cerebrovascular Adverse Reactions, Including Stroke

In placebo-controlled trials with risperidone, aripiprazole, and olanzapine in elderly subjects with dementia, there was a higher incidence of cerebrovascular adverse reactions (cerebrovascular accidents and transient ischemic attacks), including fatalities, compared to placebo-treated subjects. Latuda is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis [see also Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Latuda-Medication

5.3. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

A potentially fatal symptom complex sometimes referred to as Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) has been reported in association with administration of antipsychotic drugs, including Latuda.

Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and cardiac dysrhythmia). Additional signs may include elevated creatinine phosphokinase, myoglobinuria (rhabdomyolysis), and acute renal failure.

The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. It is important to exclude cases where the clinical presentation includes both serious medical illness (e.g. pneumonia, systemic infection) and untreated or inadequately treated extrapyramidal signs and symptoms (EPS). Other important considerations in the differential diagnosis include central anticholinergic toxicity, heat stroke, drug fever, and primary central nervous system pathology.

The management of NMS should include: 1) immediate discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs and other drugs not essential to concurrent therapy; 2) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring; and 3) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems for which specific treatments are available. There is no general agreement about specific pharmacological treatment regimens for NMS.

If a patient requires antipsychotic drug treatment after recovery from NMS, the potential reintroduction of drug therapy should be carefully considered. If reintroduced, the patient should be carefully monitored, since recurrences of NMS have been reported.

5.4. Tardive Dyskinesia

Tardive Dyskinesia is a syndrome consisting of potentially irreversible, involuntary, dyskinetic movements that can develop in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs. Although the prevalence of the syndrome appears to be highest among the elderly, especially elderly women, it is impossible to rely upon prevalence estimates to predict, at the inception of antipsychotic treatment, which patients are likely to develop the syndrome. Whether antipsychotic drug products differ in their potential to cause tardive dyskinesia is unknown.

The risk of developing tardive dyskinesia and the likelihood that it will become irreversible are believed to increase as the duration of treatment and the total cumulative dose of antipsychotic drugs administered to the patient increase. However, the syndrome can develop, although much less commonly, after relatively brief treatment periods at low doses.

There is no known treatment for established cases of tardive dyskinesia, although the syndrome may remit, partially or completely, if antipsychotic treatment is withdrawn. Antipsychotic treatment, itself, however, may suppress (or partially suppress) the signs and symptoms of the syndrome and thereby may possibly mask the underlying process. The effect that symptomatic suppression has upon the long-term course of the syndrome is unknown.

Given these considerations, Latuda should be prescribed in a manner that is most likely to minimize the occurrence of tardive dyskinesia. Chronic antipsychotic treatment should generally be reserved for patients who suffer from a chronic illness that (1) is known to respond to antipsychotic drugs, and (2) for whom alternative, equally effective, but potentially less harmful treatments are not available or appropriate. In patients who do require chronic treatment, the smallest dose and the shortest duration of treatment producing a satisfactory clinical response should be sought. The need for continued treatment should be reassessed periodically.

If signs and symptoms of tardive dyskinesia appear in a patient on Latuda, drug discontinuation should be considered. However, some patients may require treatment with Latuda despite the presence of the syndrome.

5.5. Metabolic Changes

Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been associated with metabolic changes that may increase cardiovascular/cerebrovascular risk. These metabolic changes include hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and body weight gain. While all of the drugs in the class have been shown to produce some metabolic changes, each drug has its own specific risk profile.

Hyperglycemia and Diabetes Mellitus

Hyperglycemia, in some cases extreme and associated with ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar coma or death, has been reported in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. Assessment of the relationship between atypical antipsychotic use and glucose abnormalities is complicated by the possibility of an increased background risk of diabetes mellitus in patients with schizophrenia and the increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus in the general population. Given these confounders, the relationship between atypical antipsychotic use and hyperglycemia-related adverse events is not completely understood. However, epidemiological studies suggest an increased risk of treatment-emergent hyperglycemia-related adverse events in patients treated with the atypical antipsychotics. Because Latuda was not marketed at the time these studies were performed, it is not known if Latuda is associated with this increased risk.

Patients with an established diagnosis of diabetes mellitus who are started on atypical antipsychotics should be monitored regularly for worsening of glucose control. Patients with risk factors for diabetes mellitus (e.g., obesity, family history of diabetes) who are starting treatment with atypical antipsychotics should undergo fasting blood glucose testing at the beginning of treatment and periodically during treatment. Any patient treated with atypical antipsychotics should be monitored for symptoms of hyperglycemia including polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, and weakness. Patients who develop symptoms of hyperglycemia during treatment with atypical antipsychotics should undergo fasting blood glucose testing. In some cases, hyperglycemia has resolved when the atypical antipsychotic was discontinued; however, some patients required continuation of anti-diabetic treatment despite discontinuation of the suspect drug.

Pooled data from short-term, placebo-controlled studies are presented in Table: Change in Fasting Glucose.

Table: Change in Fasting Glucose

  Placebo Latuda 20 mg/day Latuda 40 mg/day Latuda 80 mg/day Latuda 120 mg/day
Mean Change from Baseline (mg/dL)
  n=438 n=71 n=352 n=270 n=283
Serum Glucose -0.7 -0.6 2.5 -0.9 2.5
Proportion of Patients with Shifts to ≥ 126 mg/dL
Serum Glucose
(≥ 126 mg/dL)
8.6%
(34/397)
11.7%
(7/60)
14.3%
(47/328)
10.0%
(24/241)
10.0%
(26/260)

In the uncontrolled, longer-term studies (primarily open-label extension studies), Latuda was associated with a mean change in glucose of +1.6 mg/dL at week 24 (n = 186), +0.3 mg/dL at week 36 (n = 236) and +1.2 mg/dL at week 52 (n = 244).

Dyslipidemia

Undesirable alterations in lipids have been observed in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. Pooled data from short-term, placebo-controlled studies are presented in Table: Change in Fasting Lipids.

Table: Change in Fasting Lipids

  Placebo Latuda 20 mg/day Latuda 40 mg/day Latuda 80 mg/day Latuda 120 mg/day
Mean Change from Baseline (mg/dL)
  n=418 n=71 n=341 n=263 n=268
Total cholesterol -8.5 -12.3 -9.4 -9.8 -3.8
Triglycerides -15.7 -29.1 -6.2 -14.2 -3.1
Proportion of Patients with Shifts
Total Cholesterol
(> 240 mg/dL)
6.6%
(23/350)
13.8%
(8/58)
7.3%
(21/287)
6.9%
(15/216)
3.8%
(9/238)
Triglycerides
(> 200 mg/dL)
12.5%
(39/312)
14.3%
(7/49)
14.0%
(37/264)
8.7%
(17/196)
10.5%
(22/209)

In the uncontrolled, longer-term studies (primarily open-label extension studies), Latuda was associated with a mean change in total cholesterol and triglycerides of-4.2 (n=186) and -13.6 (n=187) mg/dL at week 24, -1.9 (n = 238) and -3.5 (n = 238) mg/dL at week 36 and -3.6 (n=243) and -6.5 (n=243) mg/dL at week 52, respectively.

Weight Gain

Weight gain has been observed with atypical antipsychotic use. Clinical monitoring of weight is recommended.

Pooled data from short-term, placebo-controlled studies are presented in Table: Mean Change in Weight (kg) from Baseline. The mean weight gain was 0.75 kg for Latuda-treated patients compared to 0.26 kg for placebo-treated patients. In study 3 [see Clinical Studies (14.1)] change in weight from baseline for olanzapine was 4.15 kg. The proportion of patients with a > 7% increase in body weight (at Endpoint) was 5.6% for Latuda-treated patients versus 4.0% for placebo-treated patients.

Table: Mean Change in Weight (kg) from Baseline

  Placebo
(n=450)
Latuda 20 mg/day
(n=71)
Latuda 40 mg/day
(n= 358)
Latuda 80 mg/day
(n= 279)
Latuda 120 mg/day
(n=291)
All Patients 0.26 -0.15 0.67 1.14 0.68

In the uncontrolled, longer-term studies (primarily open-label extension studies), Latuda was associated with a mean change in weight of-0.38 kg at week 24 (n = 531), -0.47 kg at week 36 (n = 303) and -0.71 kg at week 52 (n = 244).

5.6. Hyperprolactinemia

As with other drugs that antagonize dopamine D2 receptors, Latuda elevates prolactin levels.

Hyperprolactinemia may suppress hypothalamic GnRH, resulting in reduced pituitary gonadotrophin secretion. This, in turn, may inhibit reproductive function by impairing gonadal steroidogenesis in both female and male patients. Galactorrhea, amenorrhea, gynecomastia, and impotence have been reported with prolactin-elevating compounds. Long-standing hyperprolactinemia when associated with hypogonadism may lead to decreased bone density in both female and male patients [see Adverse Reactions (6)].

In short-term placebo-controlled studies, the median change from baseline to endpoint in prolactin levels for Latuda-treated patients was an increase of -1.1 ng/mL compared to a decrease of 0.6 ng/mL in the placebo-treated patients. The increase in prolactin was greater in female patients; the median change from baseline to endpoint for females was 1.5 ng/ml compared to an increase of 1.1 ng/ml in males. The increase in prolactin concentrations was dose-dependent (Table: Median Change in Prolactin (ng/mL) from Baseline).

Table: Median Change in Prolactin (ng/mL) from Baseline

  Placebo Latuda 20 mg/day Latuda 40 mg/day Latuda 80 mg/day Latuda 120 mg/day
All Patients -0.6
(n=430)
-1.1
(n=70)
0.3
(n=351)
1.1
(n=259)
3.3
(n=284)
Females -1.5
(n=102)
-0.7
(n=19)
-0.9
(n=99)
2.0
(n=78)
6.7
(n=70)
Males -0.5
(n=328)
-1.2
(n=51)
0.5
(n=252)
0.9
(n=181)
3.1
(n=214)

The proportion of patients with prolactin elevations ≥ 5x ULN was 3.6% for Latuda-treated patients versus 0.7% for placebo-treated patients. The proportion of female patients with prolactin elevations ≥ 5x ULN was 8.3% for Latuda-treated patients versus 1% for placebo-treated female patients. The proportion of male patients with prolactin elevations > 5x ULN was 1.9% versus 0.6% for placebo-treated male patients.

In the uncontrolled longer-term studies (primarily open-label extension studies), Latuda was associated with a median change in prolactin of-1.9 ng/mL at week 24 (n = 188), -5.4 ng/mL at week 36 (n=189) and -3.3 ng/mL at week 52 (n = 243).

Tissue culture experiments indicate that approximately one-third of human breast cancers are prolactin dependent in vitro, a factor of potential importance if the prescription of these drugs is considered in a patient with previously detected breast cancer. As is common with compounds which increase prolactin release, an increase in mammary gland neoplasia was observed in a Latuda carcinogenicity study conducted in rats and mice [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13)]. Neither clinical studies nor epidemiologic studies conducted to date have shown an association between chronic administration of this class of drugs and tumorigenesis in humans, but the available evidence is too limited to be conclusive.

5.7. Leukopenia, Neutropenia and Agranulocytosis

Leukopenia/neutropenia has been reported during treatment with antipsychotic agents. Agranulocytosis (including fatal cases) has been reported with other agents in the class.

Possible risk factors for leukopenia/neutropenia include pre-existing low white blood cell count (WBC) and history of drug induced leukopenia/neutropenia. Patients with a pre-existing low WBC or a history of drug induced leukopenia/neutropenia should have their complete blood count (CBC) monitored frequently during the first few months of therapy and Latuda should be discontinued at the first sign of decline in WBC, in the absence of other causative factors.

Patients with neutropenia should be carefully monitored for fever or other symptoms or signs of infection and treated promptly if such symptoms or signs occur. Patients with severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count < 1000/mm3) should discontinue Latuda and have their WBC followed until recovery.

5.8. Orthostatic Hypotension and Syncope

Latuda may cause orthostatic hypotension, perhaps due to its a1-adrenergic receptor antagonism. The incidence of orthostatic hypotension and syncope events from short-term, placebo-controlled studies was (Latuda incidence, placebo incidence): orthostatic hypotension [0.4% (4/1004), 0.2 % (1/455)] and syncope [< 0.1 % (1/1004), 0%]. Assessment of orthostatic hypotension defined by vital sign changes (≥ 20 mm Hg decrease in systolic blood pressure and ≥ 10 bpm increase in pulse from sitting to standing or supine to standing positions). In short-term clinical trials orthostatic hypotension occurred with a frequency of 0.8% with Latuda 40 mg, 1.4% with Latuda 80 mg and 1.7% with Latuda 120 mg compared to 0.9% with placebo.

Latuda should be used with caution in patients with known cardiovascular disease (e.g., heart failure, history of myocardial infarction, ischemia, or conduction abnormalities), cerebrovascular disease, or conditions that predispose the patient to hypotension (e.g., dehydration, hypovolemia, and treatment with antihypertensive medications). Monitoring of orthostatic vital signs should be considered in patients who are vulnerable to hypotension.

5.9. Seizures

As with other antipsychotic drugs, Latuda should be used cautiously in patients with a history of seizures or with conditions that lower the seizure threshold, e.g., Alzheimer’s dementia. Conditions that lower the seizure threshold may be more prevalent in patients 65 years or older.

In short-term placebo-controlled trials, seizures/convulsions occurred in < 0.1% (1/1004) of patients treated with Latuda compared to 0.2% (1/455) placebo-treated patients.

5.10. Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment

Latuda, like other antipsychotics, has the potential to impair judgment, thinking or motor skills.

In short-term, placebo-controlled trials, somnolence was reported in 22.3% (224/1004) of patients treated with Latuda compared to 9.9% (45/455) of placebo patients, respectively. The frequency of somnolence increases with dose; somnolence was reported in 26.5% (77/291) of patients receiving Latuda 120 mg/day. In these short-term trials, somnolence included: hypersomnia, hypersomnolence, sedation and somnolence.

Patients should be cautioned about operating hazardous machinery, including motor vehicles, until they are reasonably certain that therapy with Latuda does not affect them adversely.

5.11. Body Temperature Regulation

Disruption of the body’s ability to reduce core body temperature has been attributed to antipsychotic agents. Appropriate care is advised when prescribing Latuda for patients who will be experiencing conditions that may contribute to an elevation in core body temperature, e.g., exercising strenuously, exposure to extreme heat, receiving concomitant medication with anticholinergic activity, or being subject to dehydration [see Patient Counseling Information (17.9)].

5.12. Suicide

The possibility of a suicide attempt is inherent in psychotic illness and close supervision of high-risk patients should accompany drug therapy. Prescriptions for Latuda should be written for the smallest quantity of tablets consistent with good patient management in order to reduce the risk of overdose.

In short-term, placebo-controlled studies in patients with schizophrenia, the incidence of treatment-emergent suicidal ideation was 0.6% (6/1004) for Latuda treated patients compared to 0.4% (2/455) on placebo. No suicide attempts or completed suicides were reported in these studies.

5.13. Dysphagia

Esophageal dysmotility and aspiration have been associated with antipsychotic drug use. Aspiration pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly patients, in particular those with advanced Alzheimer’s dementia. Latuda is not indicated for the treatment of dementia-related psychosis, and should not be used in patients at risk for aspiration pneumonia.

5.14. Use in Patients with Concomitant Illness

Clinical experience with Latuda in patients with certain concomitant systemic illnesses is limited [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6, 8.7)]. Latuda has not been evaluated or used to any appreciable extent in patients with a recent history of myocardial infarction or unstable heart disease. Patients with these diagnoses were excluded from premarketing clinical studies [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.8)].

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