Constipation in Children

Constipation occurs in approximately 5% to 10% of children; it accounts for 3% of visits to the pediatric outpatient clinic and 25% of visits to a pediatric gastroenterologist. Defined as difficulty in passing stools; passing hard, dry, or unusually large stools; or infrequent defecation, constipation is sometimes associated with pain and a feeling of incomplete evacuation. The normal frequency of bowel movements has been characterized for infants and children as follows: Newborns have, on average, four stools per day the first week of life, with frequency decreasing to 1.7 and 1.2 stools per day around ages 2 and 4, respectively.

Osmanil (Fentanyl)

Fentanyl is one of a group of strong painkillers called opioids. The painkiller, fentanyl, slowly passes from the patch, through the skin and into the body. Inform your doctor if you develop a fever during the treatment, as the increased body temperature may cause too much medicine to pass through the skin.

Constipation Management

Constipation is a common problem experienced by many patients and can be caused by chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, stress, or medications. Please do not be afraid or embarrassed to call your doctor or nurse at any time; if left untreated the constipation may get worse and not improve on its own. Many chemotherapy and anti-nausea medications cause constipation, so when starting chemotherapy take a stool softener like Ducosate every day unless otherwise directed.


The term “diarrhea” originates from the Greek diarr, which means through, and rhein, which denotes flow. Although this descriptive term is appropriate for the symptoms, the word diarrhea may not have the same meaning for all patients and physicians.


Specialty care for asthma can be confusing because each type of provider may have a different focus. Pediatric allergists specialize in the reactions of the immune system to common environmental allergens, such as pollens, dust mites, or pet dander, that can play a key role in asthma. Allergists use skin tests to detect allergies and may, in some cases, treat allergies by giving repeated small doses of the allergen.